Understanding Bronchitis -- Cause and symptoms...

Bronchitis is inflammation or swelling of the bronchial tubes (bronchi), the air passages between the nose and the lungs. More specifically, bronchitis is when the lining of the bronchial tubes becomes inflamed or infected.

People with bronchitis breathe less air and oxygen into their lungs; they also have heavy mucus or phlegm forming in the airways. Bronchitis may be acute or chronic (long-term):

    Acute bronchitis is a shorter illness that commonly follows a cold or viral infection, such as the flu. It generally consists of a cough with green sputum, chest discomfort or soreness, fever, and sometimes shortness of breath. Acute bronchitis usually lasts a few days or weeks.

    Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a persistent, mucus-producing cough on most days of the month, three months of a year for two successive years in absence of a secondary cause of the cough. People with chronic bronchitis have varying degrees of breathing difficulties, and symptoms may get better and worsen during different parts of the year.

Bronchitis Causes:

Bronchitis occurs most often during the cold and flu season, usually coupled with an upper respiratory infection.
Several viruses cause bronchitis, including influenza A and B, commonly referred to as "the flu."
A number of bacteria are also known to cause bronchitis, such asMycoplasma pneumoniae, which causes so-called "walking pneumonia."
Bronchitis also can occur when a person inhales irritating fumes or dust. Chemical solvents and smoke, including tobacco smoke, have been linked to acute bronchitis.
People at increased risk of both getting bronchitis and of having more severe symptoms include the elderly, those with weakened immune systems, smokers, individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) oremphysema, and anyone with repeated exposure to lung irritants.

Who gets bronchitis?

People at increased risk of getting bronchitis and increased risk of having more severe symptoms include:
  • Smokers - A study carried out by researchers at the COPD Program at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in Albuquerque found that smoking was associated with the overproduction of mucus that causes bronchitis. They reported their findings in theJournal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
  • People who are exposed to a lot of secondhand smoke
  • People with weakened immune systems
  • The elderly and infants
  • People with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Those who are exposed to irritants at work, such as chemical fumes from ammonia, strong acids, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide or bromine
  • People who are exposed to air pollution - researchers at UC Davis discovered a close association between exposure to components of air pollution and acute bronchitis in preschool-aged kids. The air particulates, known as PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) originate from vehicle exhaust, wood-burning stoves, tobacco smoke, coal burning, and grilling food. Another study found that more people die in the United Kingdom from traffic pollution than from automobile accidents.
What are the symptoms of bronchitis?Signs and symptoms for both acute and chronic bronchitis include:
  • Inflammation or swelling of the bronchi
  • Coughing
  • Production of clear, white, yellow, grey, or green mucus (sputum)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Fatigue
  • Fever and chills
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Blocked or runny noseAcute bronchitis usually results in a nagging cough that lingers for several weeks even after the bronchitis resolves. Chronic bronchitis's long-term inflammation leads to scarring of the bronchial tubes and airways, which leads to production of excessive mucus. Additional symptoms of chronic bronchitis include frequent respiratory infections and a cough that is worse in the mornings and in damp weather.
When to Seek Medical Care

Although most cases of bronchitis resolve on their own, some people may have complications. A doctor can prescribe treatments that relieve some of these symptoms.
Severe coughing that interferes with rest orsleep can be reduced with prescription cough medications.
Wheezing may respond to an inhaler withalbuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) or fluticasone and salmeterol (Advair), which dilates the airways.
If fever continues beyond 4 to 5 days, see the doctor fto rule out pneumonia or other serious bacterial infections.
See a health care professional if the person is coughing up blood, rust-colored sputum, or an increased amount of green phlegm.

What Is A Phobia? ...Phobias and Fears

A phobia is an irrational fear, a kind of anxiety disorder in which the sufferer has a relentless dread of a situation, living creature, place or thing. People with a phobia go to great lengths to avoid a perceived danger which is much greater in their minds than in real life. If confronted with the source of their phobia, the person will suffer enormous distress, which can interfere with their normal function; it can sometimes lead to total panic. For some people, even thinking about their phobia is immensely distressing.

A phobia starts when a person begins organizing their lives around avoiding the object of their fear. A phobia is much more serious than a simple fear. Sufferers have an overpowering need to steer clear of anything which triggers their anxiety.

If the phobia is of something the phobic person very rarely comes into contact with, such as snakes, their daily lives will not be affected. However, some complex phobias are impossible to avoid, such as agoraphobia (fear of leaving home or public places) or social phobia (fear of being among groups of people).

“Normal” fear vs. phobias

It is normal and even helpful to experience fear in dangerous situations. Fear is an adaptive human response. It serves a protective purpose, activating the automatic “fight-or-flight” response. With our bodies and minds alert and ready for action, we are able to respond quickly and protect ourselves.

But with phobias the threat is greatly exaggerated or nonexistent. For example, it is only natural to be afraid of a snarling Doberman, but it is irrational to be terrified of a friendly poodle on a leash, as you might be if you have a dog phobia.

The difference between normal fear and a phobiaNormal fear Phobia

Feeling anxious when flying through turbulence or taking off during a storm 
Experiencing butterflies when peering down from the top of a skyscraper or climbing a tall ladder 
Getting nervous when you see a pit bull or a Rottweiler 
Feeling a little queasy when getting a shot or when your blood is being drawn 

Not going to your best friend’s island wedding because you’d have to fly there
Turning down a great job because it’s on the 10th floor of the office building
Steering clear of the park because you might see a dog
Avoiding necessary medical treatments or doctor’s checkups because you’re terrified of needles

What are the signs and symptoms of phobias?

A symptom is something the patient feels and describes, such as a headache, while a sign is something other people, as well as the patient can detect, as may be the case with a rash, swelling or bruising.

The following symptoms are common across the majority of phobias:
When exposed to the source of the fear there is a sensation of uncontrollable anxiety

A feeling that at all costs, the source of that fear must be avoided

The anxiety is so overwhelming when confronted with the source of the fear, that the person is unable to function properly

It is common for sufferers to acknowledge that their fears are irrational, unreasonable and exaggerated; however, in spite of this, they are unable to control their feelings

Panic and intense anxiety, which may include:

- sweating
- abnormal breathing (panting, trying to catch your breath) 
- accelerated heartbeat
- trembling
- hot flushes or chills
- a sensation of choking
- chest pains, chest tightness
- butterflies in the stomach
- pins and needles
- dry mouth
- confusion and disorientation
- nausea
- dizziness
- headache

A feeling of anxiety when the source of the fear is not there but is simply thought about

Children may cry, become very clingy, attempt to hide behind a parent's legs or an object, or have tantrums

What is the treatment for phobias?

Helping those who suffer from phobias is thought to be most effective whenpsychotherapy and medications that are specific to the treatment of phobia are both used. One form of psychotherapy involves the supportive and gradual exposure of the individual with phobias to circumstances that are increasingly close to the one they are phobic about (desensitization). These situations can either consist of actual or computer-generated anxiety-provoking stimuli.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to significantly decrease phobic symptoms by helping the phobia sufferer change his or her way of thinking. CBT uses three techniques to accomplish this goal:
Didactic component: This phase involves educating the individual about phobias and treatment and helps to set up positive expectations for therapy and promote the cooperation of the person with a phobia.
Cognitive component: It helps to identify the thoughts and assumptions that influence the person's behavior, particularly those that may predispose him or her to being phobic.
Behavioral component: This employs behavior-modifying techniques to teach the individual with a phobia more effective strategies for dealing with problems.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are often used to treat phobias, particularly when desensitization and CBT are inadequately effective. These medications affect levels of serotonin in the brain. Examples of these medications include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline(Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), citalopram (Celexa), andescitalopram (Lexapro). The possible side effects of these medications can vary greatly from person to person and depend on which medication is being used. Common side effects of this group of medications include dry mouth, sexual dysfunction, nausea, tremors, trouble sleeping, blurred vision,constipation or soft stools, and dizziness. In very rare cases, some people have been thought to become more acutely more anxious or depressed once on the medication, even trying to or completing suicide or homicide. Children and teens are thought to be particularly vulnerable to this rare possibility.

Phobias are also sometimes treated using beta-blocker medications, which decrease the physical symptoms associated with panic by blocking the effects that adrenaline has on the body. An example of a beta blocker ispropranolol. These disorders are also sometimes treated with drugs in a medication class known as benzodiazepines. This class of medications causes relaxation but is used with caution these days to treat anxiety due to the possibility of addiction and the risk of overdose, especially if taken when alcohol is also being consumed. Examples of medications from that group include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), andclonazepam (Klonopin).

4 Silent Signals You’re Stressed

We generally use the word "stress" when we feel that everything seems to have become too much - we are overloaded and wonder whether we really can cope with the pressures placed upon us.

Anything that poses a challenge or a threat to our well-being is a stress. Some stresses get you going and they are good for you - without any stress at all many say our lives would be boring and would probably feel pointless. However, when the stresses undermine both our mental and physical health they are bad. In this text we shall be focusing on stress that is bad for you.

Surprising Stress Symptoms

1 weekend headaches A sudden drop in stress can prompt migraines, says Todd Schwedt, MD,director of the Washington University Headache Center. Stick closely to your weekday sleeping and eating schedule to minimize other triggers.

2 awful period cramps The most stressed women are more than twice as likely to get painful cramps as those who are less tense, found a Harvard School of Public Health study. Researchers blame a stress-induced imbalance of hormones. Exercise can soothe cramps and stress by decreasing sympathetic nervous system activity.

3 an achy mouth A sore jaw may be a sign of teeth grinding, which can be worsened by stress, says Matthew Messina, DDS, a consumer advisor to the American Dental Association. Ask your dentist about a nighttime mouth guard—up to 70% of people who use one reduce grinding or stop it altogether.

4 odd dreams Dreams usually get progressively more positive as you sleep, so you wake up happier than you were before bed, says Rosalind Cartwright, PhD, an emeritus professor of psychology at Rush University Medical Center. When stressed, you wake up more often, disrupting this process and allowing unpleasant imagery all night. Good sleep habits can help prevent this; aim for 7 to 8 hours a night, and avoid caffeine and alcohol close to bedtime

Dietary Chart For Patients With Urinary Stones...

Foods Recommended:

Coconut Water:

It is high in potassium and magnesium,hence it helps prevent stone formation.


carrots,Bitter Guard(Karela)
They are rich in minerals which act as stone inhibitors.

Fruits and Juice

It is rich in citrates,thereby preventing calcium oxalate formation.
Pineapple juice:
It contains enzymes which breakdown fibrins thereby preventing renal stone formation.


They are rich in stone inhibitora.
It is rich in Potassium and magnesium which act as stone inhibitor


Calcium or Oxalate Stones:
Drink 10-12 glasses of water each day.
Limit high calcium like dairy products and high-oxalate foods like colas,peanuts,chocolate.don't overuse Antacids.
Uric Acid Stones:
Drink 10-20 glasses of water each day.
Limit high Purine foods like meat,vegetables,beer,wine.
Struvite Stones:
Drink 10-12 glasses of water each day.
Caused by infections,you must follow your antibiotic and drinks lots of water.
Cystine Stones:
Drink 10-12 Glasses of water each day.
Limit intake of fish (it is high in methionine.)

Foods Restricted:


Tomato,palak and amaranath greens(Chaulai)
They have high oxalate content which can lead to urinary stones.
It has high uric acid/pirine content which cause stone formation.


Cashew nuts
It has high Oxalate content which can lead to urinary stones.
Chocolate/cocoa,other chocolate drink mixes,tea and coffee.
They have high oxalate content which can lead to urinary stones.